Spiral galaxies have winding arms made up of billions of stars and provide a beautiful view of the universe. Our Milky Way galaxy is a spiral galaxy, but this type of spiral galaxy cluster is relatively rare in some parts of the universe. super galactic plane. A team of astrophysicists believes that bright elliptical galaxies without a clear center are more common than spiral galaxies because of the difference in the density of the environments seen inside and outside the plane. Here are the findings: The study was published Nov. 20 in the journal natural astronomy.
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smooth your arms
A supergalactic plane is a flat structure in the universe that spans almost a billion light years. Our own Milky Way galaxy is embedded within the Earth. Approximately 100,000 light years wide. There are dozens of giant galaxy clusters without arms called elliptical galaxies in the plane, but there are not so many disk-shaped galaxies with spiral arms.
by new research, the different distribution of elliptical and disk galaxies is a natural phenomenon. This region is so dense that galaxies frequently experience interactions and mergers with other galaxies in the plane. This galaxy destruction derby turns spiral galaxies into elliptical galaxies. The arms become smooth, and the lack of internal structure in elliptical galaxies and the presence of dark matter lead to the growth of supermassive black holes. Since then, dark matter surpasses All others have forces that shape newly formed elliptical galaxies and tend to guide the growth of the central black hole.
Stars in elliptical galaxies also orbit in random directions around the center and are generally older than stars in spiral galaxies. According to NASA.
In parts of the universe far from the plane, galaxies can evolve in relative isolation. This solitude helps maintain their spiral structure.
“The distribution of galaxies in the supergalactic plane is certainly noteworthy,” says study co-author Carlos Frenk, an astrophysicist at Durham University in the UK. stated in a statement. “This is rare, but not a complete anomaly. Our simulations reveal details of galaxy formation, such as the change from spirals to ellipses due to galaxy mergers.”
galactic time machine
In the study, the team used a supercomputer simulation called . Simulation beyond the local universe. Trace the evolution of the universe over 13.8 billion years, from the time of the Big Bang to the present day.
[Related: Hubble image captures stars forming in a far-off phantom galaxy.]
Most cosmological simulations consider random patches of the universe and cannot be directly compared to other observations. Instead, SIBELIUS works to accurately reproduce observed structures in the Universe, including supergalactic planes. The research team says the final simulation is in remarkable agreement with telescope observations of the universe.
“This simulation shows that the standard model of the universe, which is based on the idea that most of the mass of the universe is cold dark matter, is now showing that the most remarkable structures in the universe, including the magnificent structure of which the Milky Way is a part, This shows that it can be reproduced.” Frank.
Scientists have been studying the separation of elliptical and spiral galaxies since the 1960s. This division is highlighted in a recent list of cosmic anomalies compiled by cosmologist and 2019 Nobel Prize winner Professor Jim Peebles.
“Coincidentally, I was invited to a symposium honoring Jim Peebles in Durham last December, where he raised this issue in his lecture,” said co-author of the paper and a professor at the University of Helsinki in Finland. said astrophysicist Thiru Sawalha. stated in a statement. “Then we realized that simulations had already been completed that might contain the answer. Our research shows that the known mechanisms of galaxy evolution also work in this unique cosmic environment. Masu.”